Sex Differences in Outcomes of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery with Accelerated Rehabilitation

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Xinxin Zhang
Qian Wang
Min Zhang
Liguang Chen
Danhong Peng


Background: Sex, in the sense of gender, is a major social demographic characteristic that has been shown to affect health care outcomes. The concept of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is an effective perioperative management measure that can reduce the perioperative stress response in patients. However, there are few studies on the differences between male and female patients under this type of care. We aimed to analyze sex differences in clinical characteristics among patients undergoing hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery with accelerated rehabilitation. 

Methods: We enrolled patients who underwent liver, biliary tract, and gallbladder operations in the Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery of Taizhou Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China, from April 2021 to July 2021. Key measures were collected for patients undergoing perioperative accelerated rehabilitation (i.e., the case group). The study group was assembled by performing 1:1 matching for age, sex, chronic disease, and type of surgery. Postoperative risk assessment, postoperative recovery indicators, and postoperative length of hospital stay (days) were compared between male and female patients. 

Results: A total of 226 surgical patients were enrolled, including 109 male (48.23%) and 117 female patients (51.77%). The outcomes, presented as the median (min, max), were as follows: pulmonary rehabilitation risk assessment in females (1(0,3)) and males (0(0,2)), postoperative nausea and vomiting in females (2(1,3)) and males (1(0,2)), and time to first defecation in females (31(4,61)) and males (36(10,78)). Significant differences were indicated by p values < 0.05. 

Conclusion: We identified sex differences in the clinical prognosis and performance of perioperative patients undergoing hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery with accelerated rehabilitation. The perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation risk of male patients was higher than that of female patients, and the time to first defecation was longer in male than in female patients. The incidence of nausea and vomiting in women was higher than in men.

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How to Cite
Zhang, Xinxin, et al. “Sex Differences in Outcomes of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery With Accelerated Rehabilitation”. Annali Italiani Di Chirurgia, vol. 95, no. 2, Apr. 2024, pp. 166-73, doi:10.62713/aic.3169.